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LCD pixel macro (XLarge); What is LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)?

What is LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)?

February 6, 2024

From Liquid Crystals to Visual Delight: A Deep Dive into LCD Displays

In the realm of display technology, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) stands as a cornerstone, powering screens from smartphones to TVs. But what exactly is LCD, and how does it work? Delve into the world of LCD technology to uncover its inner workings and applications with the Apollo Display Technology team:

Understanding Liquid Crystals and Working Principles

LCD technology utilizes liquid crystals, a unique state of matter that exhibits properties of both solid and liquid phases. These liquid crystals are sandwiched between two transparent electrodes and sealed within glass or plastic substrates, each coated with alignment layers. When an electric current is applied to the electrodes, it alters the orientation of the liquid crystals, causing them to twist and align in various ways. This manipulation of the liquid crystal alignment affects the polarization of light passing through them.

Layers of an LCD Display and Modulating Light

The LCD display consists of multiple layers, including a backlight (or light source), polarizing filters, and color filters. The backlight emits white light, which passes through a polarizing filter, aligning the light waves in a specific orientation. As light passes through the liquid crystal layer, the orientation of the liquid crystals can be controlled to either allow light to pass through or block it. This modulation of light creates the desired image or text on the screen, with color filters further refining the light to produce vibrant colors.

Advantages, Applications, and Evolution

LCD technology offers several advantages, including high resolution, energy efficiency, and versatility, making it ideal for various devices, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, monitors, and televisions. Despite its widespread use, LCD technology has evolved over the years, giving rise to variations such as TFT-LCD (Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display) and IPS-LCD (In-Plane Switching Liquid Crystal Display), which offer improved performance and viewing angles.

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